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Weather is the state of the atmosphere, encompassing factors like temperature, precipitation, and atmospheric conditions. It is experienced daily by individuals worldwide and is a subject of both social and scientific discourse. Weather phenomena primarily occur in the troposphere, the lowest layer of Earth’s atmosphere. The contrast in air pressure, temperature, and moisture between different regions drives weather patterns. Climate, on the other hand, refers to long-term atmospheric conditions. The study of weather falls under meteorology, a branch of atmospheric sciences focused on weather forecasting.

Meteorology, dating back millennia, made significant advancements in the 18th century with the elucidation of physical laws. The 19th century saw progress after the establishment of weather observation networks. Weather prediction historically relied on past data until the development of computational models in the latter half of the 20th century revolutionized forecasting. The advent of computers enabled automated solutions to complex modeling equations, enhancing predictive capabilities.

Weather forecasting involves applying science and technology to predict atmospheric conditions at specific locations and times. It has a rich history marked by milestones such as the formation of weather observation networks and advancements in computational modeling. The accuracy and reliability of modern weather forecasts owe much to technological innovations and scientific progress in meteorology.

In conclusion, weather is a dynamic and ever-present aspect of our environment that influences daily life and societal activities. Meteorology’s evolution over centuries has transformed our understanding and prediction of weather patterns, highlighting the intricate interplay between scientific knowledge, technological advancements, and natural phenomena.


Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
weather (noun)
the state of the atmosphere with respect to heat or cold, wetness or dryness, calm or storm, clearness or cloudiness
state or vicissitude of life or fortune
disagreeable atmospheric conditions as
a) - rain storm
b) cold air with dampness
- weathering
weather (verb)
transitive verb
to expose to the open air subject to the action of the elements
intransitive verb
to bear up against and come safely through - weather a storm weather a crisis to undergo or endure the action of the elements
weather (adjective)
of or relating to the side facing the wind - compare lee
Merriam-Webster Online Thesaurus
weather (verb)
to come safely through
ride (out), weather
outlast, outlive, wear out; pull through; abide, continue, endure, hang on, hold on, hold out, hold up, last, lead, persist, stand, stick out, withstand; be, breathe, exist, live, subsist; flourish, prosper, thrive
croak [], decease, depart, die, expire, pass (on), pass away, perish, succumb; disappear, evaporate, fade, vanish; cease, end, stop
Weather (Wikipedia)

Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy. On Earth, most weather phenomena occur in the lowest layer of the planet's atmosphere, the troposphere, just below the stratosphere. Weather refers to day-to-day temperature, precipitation, and other atmospheric conditions, whereas climate is the term for the averaging of atmospheric conditions over longer periods of time. When used without qualification, "weather" is generally understood to mean the weather of Earth.

Weather is driven by air pressure, temperature, and moisture differences between one place and another. These differences can occur due to the Sun's angle at any particular spot, which varies with latitude. The strong temperature contrast between polar and tropical air gives rise to the largest scale atmospheric circulations: the Hadley cell, the Ferrel cell, the polar cell, and the jet stream. Weather systems in the middle latitudes, such as extratropical cyclones, are caused by instabilities of the jet streamflow. Because Earth's axis is tilted relative to its orbital plane (called the ecliptic), sunlight is incident at different angles at different times of the year. On Earth's surface, temperatures usually range ±40 °C (−40 °F to 104 °F) annually. Over thousands of years, changes in Earth's orbit can affect the amount and distribution of solar energy received by Earth, thus influencing long-term climate and global climate change.

Surface temperature differences in turn cause pressure differences. Higher altitudes are cooler than lower altitudes, as most atmospheric heating is due to contact with the Earth's surface while radiative losses to space are mostly constant. Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the atmosphere for a future time and a given location. Earth's weather system is a chaotic system; as a result, small changes to one part of the system can grow to have large effects on the system as a whole. Human attempts to control the weather have occurred throughout history, and there is evidence that human activities such as agriculture and industry have modified weather patterns.

Studying how the weather works on other planets has been helpful in understanding how weather works on Earth. A famous landmark in the Solar System, Jupiter's Great Red Spot, is an anticyclonic storm known to have existed for at least 300 years. However, the weather is not limited to planetary bodies. A star's corona is constantly being lost to space, creating what is essentially a very thin atmosphere throughout the Solar System. The movement of mass ejected from the Sun is known as the solar wind.

Weather (Wiktionary)



From Middle English weder, wedir, from Old English weder, from Proto-West Germanic *wedr, from Proto-Germanic *wedrą, from Proto-Indo-European *wedʰrom (=*we-dʰrom), from *h₂weh₁- (to blow).

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